Seth Leedy’s GRC Security Now Podcast Download Script

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Security Now Logo

This script is a work by Webmaster Seth Leedy, but was inspired by and evolved from the scripts by Thomas@devtactix.com


I noticed that I was mentioned in the Security Now show(epi: 457, 558). Yipee!


Download any or all Steve Gibson’s GRC Security Now podcasts via a bash script.
The script can look at the episodes already downloaded and download the next one.
You can specify the episode(s). Download 1 or a range.
Another function is to search for text within ALL the episodes and copy the episode text to another directory for further reading.
Run it with “-h” for all the other options.


The code is now on GitHub ! Feel free to help develop it or fork it.

You can submit issues within GitHub or via email to me. Comments below are not actively monitored…


Todo:

  • Allow for different cases on the “.mp3” searches. Only looking at lower case right now.
  • For version 1.8, allow perhaps, a different source for the files in the RSS Feed. Instead of GRC and CacheFly.

Examples:

  • Will download the latest episode and it will be the TEXT transcriptions.
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -eptxt -latest
  • Will download the latest episode and it will be the PDF transcriptions.
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -eppdf -latest
  • This will download the TEXT and .PDF.
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -eppdf -eptxt -latest
  •  The arguments -ahq and -alq is for downloading AUDIO .MP3 files.
    • -AHQ = High Quality. -ALQ = Low Quality.
  • The arguments -vhq and -vlq is for downloading VIDEO .MP4 files.
    • -VHQ = High Quality. -VLQ = Low Quality.
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -alq -vlq -eptxt -latest
      or
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -vlq -eptxt -ep 10
  • You can also download all video, in HD, and text- at once. At 10 downloads a time. *Not all episodes are in HD. The start of the show was not in video nor HD.
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -vhd -eptxt -ep 1:latest -pd 10
  • Will download every single text copy of the episodes and search for your text( TNO here ) and put the results in a special directory for you to open at your leisure.
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -dandstxt TNO
  • Will search only the text episodes already downloaded in the current directory and the cache used in the above -dandstxt option. It will not go online to search.
    • ./GRC-Downloader.sh -stxt TNO

Count of script executions:

  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v0.8, Count: 2
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v0.9, Count: 11
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.0, Count: 14
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.1, Count: 1
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.2, Count: 2
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.3, Count: 138
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.4, Count: 46
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.5, Count: 116
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.6, Count: 1025
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.7, Count: 813
  • Agent: GRCDownloader_v1.8, Count: 1509

11,476 total views, 2 views today

7 Ways to Easily Identify SVCHOST.EXE Service Name

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From: https://www.raymond.cc/blog/identify-loaded-svchostexe-in-windows-task-list/


Other than commonly using the Windows Task Manager to end a hung task or process, it is also very useful to quickly check the active running programs on your computer. You may noticed that there is quite a number of svchost.exe listed in the processes tab and is probably wondering what is it and how come there are so many of them running? Basically SVCHOST is used by Windows to run multiple Windows services and the reason why Windows services uses svchost.exe to run is because they are in DLL files and not an independent executable (.EXE) file. If you didn’t know, Windows Services is one of the startup method in Windows where it can automatically run in background without even requiring the user to login to their account in Windows, unlike other startup method where the programs will only run when the user is logged in to Windows.

svchost.exe in task manager

Normally users would ignore the existence of svchost.exe listed in the Windows Task Manager and only look for some dubious image name. This is where some malware takes advantage by using the file name as svchost.exe, hoping that you would not notice its presence. One easy way to find out a suspicious svchost.exe is by looking at the user name that is used to run the svchost.exe. If the svchost is ran by SYSTEM, NETWORK SERVICE or LOCAL SERVICE, then it should be legitimate but if it is ran under YOUR user account, then you need to investigate if the svchost.exe file is from another location than C:\Windows\System32\. If you’d like to identify the services that are ran behind the svchost.exe, here are 7 ways to do it. 1. Windows Task Manager

Starting from Windows Vista, Microsoft has made it easy because the Task Manager is capable of showing you the service name associated with the svchost.exe process. To run windows Task Manager, right click on the task bar and select “Start Task Manager”. Alternatively you can also simultaneously press Ctrl+Shift+Esc. Then all you need to do is right click on the svchost.exe process and select “Go to Service(s)” where you will automatically jump to the Services tab and the service name being highlight.

svchost.exe services

You are able to start or stop the service by right clicking on the service name. The problem is, some virus disables the Windows Task Manager by changing a registry value and it is important to know other methods of identifying the svchost.exe service name.


2. Command Prompt

Another method to reveal the service that is associated with the svchost.exe is by using tasklist.exe from command prompt. In command prompt, type the command below, hit enter and the service name will be displayed at the right side of the tasklist output.

tasklist /svc /fi “IMAGENAME eq svchost.exe”

Tasklist svchost.exe

There are some limitations in using the tasklist.exe command line tool because it only the cryptic service name, not the display name or description. Just like Task Manager, command prompt too can be disabled from running by malware which is why sometimes it is good to have third party tools in hand.


3. Process Explorer

Process Explorer is the grandfather of all task managers. So far it seems to be the most comprehensive tool to control and view the information associated with svchost.exe. Simply double click on the svchost.exe in Process Explorer and click on the Services tab.

Process Explorer services

First you get to see all the services registered in the process that you’re viewing, then it shows the service name, display name and the path to do DLL file that was loaded. You are also able to configure the permissions for the service plus stopping, restarting, pausing and resuming the service.

Download Process Explorer 


4. Process Hacker

Process Hacker is another popular free and powerful open source task manager that is capable of showing and controlling the services from svchosts.exe process. Just like Process Explorer, double click on svchost.exe process and go to the Services tab. The list of associates services is shown and you can stop or pause the service. Double clicking on the service will bring up a more advanced property window to configure the permissions, startup type, error control and many more.

Process Hacker Services Properties

There are both installer and portable versions available including 32-bit and 64-bit builds.

Download Process Hacker 


5. Svchost Process Analyzer

Svchost Process Analyzer

Svchost Process Analyzer is a free and portable program that analyzes the svchost.exe and shows services that is associated with the process. Clicking on any ID on the top window will display the services at the bottom together with the DLL file and status. The description of the service will automatically refresh and shown at the top bar of the program. This tool can only display information but lack of control options.

Download Svchost Process Analyzer 


6. Svchost Viewer

Svchost Viewer

Svchost Viewer is another free and open source utility hosted at CodePlex that gives you the basic information such as service name and description. There are also two checkboxes to show if the service can be paused or stopped. If it can be stopped, click on the Service Control menu bar and select “Stop Selected Service”. A piece of interesting information shown in Svchost Viewer is the amount of data written and read.

Download Svchost Viewer 


7. Services In Svchost

Services In Svchost is a very simple program that simply shows the services in the svchosts.exe. There is no description, no control, or DLL file information. The only unique feature found in this utility is the ability to view the services on remote computers by entering the computer name or IP address.

Services in Svchost

There are requirements if you want to get the services on remote computer. Firstly it requires a user account that has a password set (empty password is not allowed) and the Remote Registry service must be manually started. Make sure the Windows Firewall is not blocking the connection. Once all this 3 requirements are met, you need to manually authenticate with the remote computer by accessing the shared folders. After authentication, simply enter the computer name and click Get Services button.

Download Services In Svchost 
Read More: 
https://www.raymond.cc/blog/identify-loaded-svchostexe-in-windows-task-list/

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Installing Nginx with PHP 7 and MySQL 5.7 (LEMP) on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

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From: https://www.howtoforge.com/tutorial/installing-nginx-with-php7-fpm-and-mysql-on-ubuntu-16.04-lts-lemp/


Nginx (pronounced “engine x”) is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server. Nginx is known for its stability, rich feature set, simple configuration, and low resource consumption. This tutorial shows how you can install Nginx on an Ubuntu 16.04 server with PHP 7 support (through PHP-FPM) and MySQL 5.7 support (LEMP = Linux + nginx (pronounced “engine x”) + MySQL + PHP).

 

1 Preliminary Note

In this tutorial, I use the hostname server1.example.com with the IP address 192.168.1.100. These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate.

I’m running all the steps in this tutorial with root privileges, so make sure you’re logged in as root:

sudo -s

 

2 Installing MySQL 5.7

In order to install MySQL, we run:

apt-get -y install mysql-server mysql-client

You will be asked to provide a password for the MySQL root user – this password is valid for the user root@localhost as well as root@server1.example.com, so we don’t have to specify a MySQL root password manually later on:

New password for the MySQL “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword
Repeat password for the MySQL “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword

To secure the database server and remove  the anonymous user and test database, run the mysql_secure_installation command.

mysql_secure_installation

You will be asked these questions:

root@server1:~# mysql_secure_installation

Securing the MySQL server deployment.

Enter password for user root: <– Enter the MySQL root password

VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN can be used to test passwords
and improve security. It checks the strength of password
and allows the users to set only those passwords which are
secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD plugin?

Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: <– Press y if you want this function or press Enter otherwise.
Using existing password for root.
Change the password for root ? ((Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : <– Press enter

… skipping.
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user,
allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have
a user account created for them. This is intended only for
testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother.
You should remove them before moving into a production
environment.

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : <– y
Success.

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from
‘localhost’. This ensures that someone cannot guess at
the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : <– y
Success.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named ‘test’ that
anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing,
and should be removed before moving into a production
environment.

Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : <– y
– Dropping test database…
Success.

– Removing privileges on test database…
Success.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes
made so far will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : <– y
Success.

All done!

MySQL is secured now.

3 Installing Nginx

In case that you have installed Apache2 already, then remove it first with these commands & then install nginx:

service apache2 stop
update-rc.d -f apache2 remove
apt-get remove apache2

Nginx is available as a package for Ubuntu 16.04 which we can install.

apt-get -y install nginx

Start nginx afterwards:

service nginx start

Type in your web server’s IP address or hostname into a browser (e.g. http://192.168.1.100), and you should see the following page:

The Ubuntu Nginx default page.

The default nginx document root on Ubuntu 16.04 is /var/www/html.

 

4 Installing PHP 7

We can make PHP work in nginx through PHP-FPM (PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI implementation with some additional features useful for sites of any size, especially busier sites) which we install as follows:

apt-get -y install php7.0-fpm

PHP-FPM is a daemon process (with the init script php7.0-fpm) that runs a FastCGI server on the socket /run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock.

 

5 Configuring nginx

The nginx configuration is in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf which we open now:

nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

The configuration is easy to understand (you can learn more about it here: http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxFullExample and here: http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxFullExample2)

First (this is optional) adjust the keepalive_timeout to a reasonable value:

The virtual hosts are defined in server {} containers. The default vhost is defined in the file /etc/nginx/sites-available/default – let’s modify it as follows:

nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

server_name _; makes this a default catchall vhost (of course, you can as well specify a hostname here like www.example.com).

root /var/www/html; means that the document root is the directory /var/www/html.

The important part for PHP is the location ~ \.php$ {} stanza. Uncomment it to enable it.

Now save the file and reload nginx:

service nginx reload

Next open /etc/php/7.0/fpm/php.ini

nano /etc/php/7.0/fpm/php.ini

… and set cgi.fix_pathinfo=0:

Reload PHP-FPM:

service php7.0-fpm reload

Now create the following PHP file in the document root /var/www/html:

nano /var/www/html/info.php

Now we call that file in a browser (e.g. http://192.168.1.100/info.php):

PHP Info on Ubuntu with Nginx.

As you see, PHP 7 is working, and it’s working through FPM/FastCGI, as shown in the Server API line. If you scroll further down, you will see all modules that are already enabled in PHP. MySQL is not listed there which means we don’t have MySQL support in PHP yet.

 

6 Getting MySQL Support In PHP 7

To get MySQL support in PHP, we can install the php7.0-mysql package. It’s a good idea to install some other PHP modules as well as you might need them for your applications. You can search for available PHP modules like this:

apt-cache search php7.0

Pick the ones you need and install them like this:

apt-get -y install php7.0-mysql php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-intl php-pear php-imagick php7.0-imap php7.0-mcrypt php-memcache  php7.0-pspell php7.0-recode php7.0-sqlite3 php7.0-tidy php7.0-xmlrpc php7.0-xsl php7.0-mbstring php-gettext

APCu is an extension for the PHP Opcache module that comes with PHP 7, it adds some compatibility features for software that supports the APC cache (e.g. WordPress cache plugins).

APCu can be installed as follows:

apt-get -y install php-apcu

Now reload PHP-FPM:

service php7.0-fpm reload

Now reload http://192.168.1.100/info.php in your browser and scroll down to the modules section again. You should now find lots of new modules there, including the MySQL module:

The PHP Modules have been installed.

 

7 Making PHP-FPM use a TCP Connection

By default PHP-FPM is listening on the socket /var/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock. It is also possible to make PHP-FPM use a TCP connection. To do this, open /etc/php/7.0/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

nano /etc/php/7.0/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

… and make the listen line look as follows:

This will make PHP-FPM listen on port 9000 on the IP 127.0.0.1 (localhost). Make sure you use a port that is not in use on your system.

Then reload PHP-FPM:

php7.0-fpm reload

Next go through your nginx configuration and all your vhosts and change the line fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock; to fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;, e.g. like this:

nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

Finally, reload nginx:

service nginx reload

That’s it. The Nginx LEMP server is installed.

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Zerotier VPN bridge BASH script

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Step-by-step Guide On How To Setup OpenVPN From pfSense’s Web-GUI (USER/PASS Auth)

Standard

FROM: https://chubbable.com/setup-openvpn-pfsense


OpenVPN is the most simplest open source software out there that implements a secure virtual private networking (VPN) techniques to secure your connection, whether it be a site-to-site or point-to-point connection. It is comes built-in with pfSense router software and it’s simple to use and easy to configure. In this guide, you’ll gonna learn how to configure an OpenVPN server under pfSense’s long list of useful features and services. I will show you how you would configure a client machine to connect to the OpenVPN server, both under Windows and Linux machines. To start with this guide, you must have already

installed and configured your pfSense machine and that you already have a working local area network.

Part 1: Setting Up The Server

The first part of this guide will show you how to bring up the OpenVPN server instance using pfSense’s webConfigurator GUI. This method is by far the most easiest way to setup an VPN access server, compared to the command-line method of configuration. Take note that, version 2.1.4 release of pfSense was used for this guide.

  • Step 1: For the first step, you need to create a Certificate Authority that will be used to sign future user certificates. So whenever you create a new user certificate, this Certificate Authority shall be in charge in signing those newly created certificates. To do this, you must login to pfSense webConfigurator or admin web page, by accessing its IP address using a browser. So type in and press key. Login by supplying the correct data for the user and user-password. Upon logging in, navigate to Main Menu -> -> . Make sure you’re on the tab, to add a new CA (Certificate Authority), click on plus button. A new page should open, now fill up the necessary fields.

    This is how I did:

    • Method – Create an internal Certificate
    • Descriptive name – MyCA
    • Method – Create an internal Certificate Authority
    • Key length – 2048 bits
    • Digest Algorithm – SHA256
    • Lifetime – 3650
    • Common Name – Internal-CA

Those are the most important fields to fill up on this page. But don’t miss to fill up the Country Code, State or Province, City, Organization and Email Address. Enter what’s applicable to you. Save your settings by clicking the

button. You should see a page similar to the image shown below.

[/crayon]

pfSense OpenVPN CA Certificate Setup - Image 1

pfSense OpenVPN CA Certificate Setup - Image 2

pfSense OpenVPN CA Certificate Setup - Image 3

  • Step 2: While still on the tab, add another certificate by clicking the plus button. This process is similar to the steps you took under Step 1. But this time, you’ll be creating a for OpenVPN Server. Click the add button again and fill up the necessary fields like so:
    • Method – Create an internal Certificate
    • Descriptive name – MyOpenVPN-Server-Cert
    • Certificate authority – MyCA
    • Key length – 2048 bits
    • Digest Algorithm – SHA256
    • Certificate Type – Server Certificate
    • Lifetime – 3650
    • Common Name – ovpn.chubbable.com

    Note: Substitute the values with your own data. Fill up the other fields; Country Code, State or Province, City, Organization and Email Address. Then to save your settings. You should see a page similar to the image shown below. Reference Image:

    CA Certificated Created

  • Step 3: The third step you should take is to create a new user account for the VPN client to use. While still on page, do the next step below. Navigate to Main Menu -> -> . Reference Image:
    OpenVPN Setup - Step 3

    You should be now at the

    page. On this page, create a new user by clicking plus

    button, you should be taken to a new page where you should enter the details of the new user account. Fill up the

    field,

    fields twice, Full name, Expiration date (blank = no expiration). In my case, I named my first user account as

    .

    Note: Remember to create a corresponding certificate for this user.

    Tick the check-box next to

    dialog. It should expand and let’s you fill the necessary fields to create a new user certificate.

    Fill up the

    field. Make it similar with your user account name. In my case, I named my first VPN user account as

    , while I put

    as my certificate

    . Fill up

    , but this should be automatically filled showing an entry that you’ve previously made from step 1, the Certificate Authority (CA). So in this case,

    should show up here. Select a

    for the certificate, in my case I chose

    .

    Reference Image:

    OpenVPN Setup - Step 3b

    Finally, save your settings by clicking the

    button. You should see a screen similar to the image shown below.

    Reference Image:

    OpenVPN Setup - Step 3c

  • Step 4: Next you should install the from the package manager page. Take the next steps below. Navigate to main menu -> -> -> . You should see a list of available packages. Now scroll further down below and look for the package name . To install the package, click the add button and you should be taken to a new sub-page. Click the button to start the installation. You should see a screen similar to this one. Reference Images:
    pfSense OpenVPN Setup - Step 4a

    pfSense OpenVPN Setup - Step 4b

    pfSense OpenVPN Setup - Step 4c

    pfSense OpenVPN Setup - Step 4d

    You’ll have a hint about the progress of the install process by watching your screen. Upon successful installation, you should see a message

    .

  • Step 5: While still logged in, navigate to main menu then

    ->

    . Reference Image:

    pfSense OpenVPN Seteup - Step 5a

    You should be now on the OpenVPN Server page, now click the

    tab, to start a wizard-assisted configuration. A new page should open, entitled

    . On this page, select

    for

    , then click

    . Reference Image:

    pfSense OpenVPN Setup - Step 5c

    On the next page, choose a Certificate Authority (CA). Select the CA you’ve previously created from step 1 of this guide. In this case, it’s the

    . Click Next to continue. The next page should ask you to choose a Server Certificate. You had created this already from step 2 above, and in this case it’s the

    . In case you named it like you wished, then choose that entry as your server certificate. Then click Next when done.

    The next page contains a long list of field set. The first field set that you should see is the

    field set. This is how I filled those up. General OpenVPN Server Information:

    • Interface = LAN
    • Protocol = UDP
    • Local Port = 1194
    • Description = MYOpenVPN-Server-LAN

    Note: The Interface settings is typically set to WAN, but if you have a Dynamic IP address, your VPN connection will break if your IP address changes. So it’s better to set it to LAN if you only intend to use OpenVPN within your Local Area Network.

    For a site-to-site implementation of OpenVPN, Interface should be set to WAN. Cryptographic Settings:

    • Cryptographic Settings = Enable authentication of TLS packets – CHECKED
    • Generate TLS Key = Automatically generate a shared TLS authentication key = CHECKED
    • DH Parameters Length = 2048
    • Encryption Algorithm = AES-256-CBC (256-bit)
    • Hardware Crypto = No Hardware…

    Tunnel Settings:

    • Tunnel Network = 10.0.1.0/24
    • Redirect Gateway = Force all client generated traffic through the tunnel = CHECKED
    • Local Network = 192.168.1.0/24 > Note: Leave Local Network blank if you don’t want to add a route to your LAN, using this VPN tunnel.
    • Concurrent Connections = 10
    • Compression = CHECKED

    Client Settings:

    • Dynamic IP = CHECKED
    • Address Pool = CHECKED

    Note: Other fields that were not mentioned here, were left blank. After filling those necessary fields, click next to advance to the next page. The next page should be the

    . This is what I did to this page.

    • Firewall Rule = CHECKED
    • OpenVPN Rule = CHECKED

    After doing the above step, click NEXT and then finally, click FINISH. You should be taken back to the Server` tab.

    At this point, you’ve already configured a working OpenVPN Server in pfSense. Next step will be to export your user config files for your chosen VPN client. A client could be a Windows machines, Android Devices, Mac or Linux machines. You need to export the client configuration file by downloading the file from pfSense’s webConfigurator page, using OpenVPN Client Export utility. Read Part 2 of this guide to learn how to export your configuration files for specific VPN clients.

Part 2: Client Config Files Export & Client Connection

Now that you’ve set up an OpenVPN Server, it’s for you to test it and let your chosen client machine connects to it. This part of the guide has sub-parts, broken according to client types. So you will learn how to connect from Windows and Linux based machines.

Connecting From Linux Clients

For this guide, I’m going to show you how you would connect from a Linux-Mint-based machine.

  • Step 1: Login to pfSense webConfigurator and navigate to main menu, then go to -> -> tab. You should be now on the Client Export Utility page.

    This is how I’ve set up my client before exporting it for my Linux Mint machine:

    • Remote Access Server = MyOpenVPN-Server-LAN UDP:1194 > Note: This is the name of the OpenVPN server instance that you’ve configured from step 5 above, under General OpenVPN Server Information -> Description. If you named it otherwise, then it should appear from the drop-down menu.
    • Host Name Resolution = Interface IP Address
    • Verify Server CN = Automatic – Use verify-x509-name (OpenVPN 2.3+) where possible
    • Use Random Local Port = CHECKED
    • Certificate Export Options = Use a password to protect the pkcs12 file contents or key in Viscosity bundle – CHECKED

    Then enter your desired password.

    This is an additional password on top of your pfSense user-password. And that’s it. I left other fields untouched. Scroll further down below ’till you reach the

    block. Look for the user-name you wish to export this configuration from.

    Under the

    column, click

    text link just below the

    text. It should let you download the configuration files in ZIP format. Choose the location where you want to save it and keep note of this. Save the file and extract it after. You should find three files similar to the ones listed below:

    • vpn-user-name.ovpn
    • vpn-user-name-tls.key
    • vpn-user-name.p12

    Note: vpn-user-name should be your OpenVPN account user-name that you were exporting from.

  • Step 2: For this step, I think it’s better to teach you this by showing a video guide. So watch this video guide on how to connect from Linux Mint 17. Make sure you have the package installed on your Linux Mint 17 instance. You won’t see the OpenVPN Import dialog if you haven’t installed this yet. To install this package, open a terminal and type: And proceed with the steps shown from the video guide.

Connecting From Windows Clients

Connecting to pfSense-based OpenVPN server from a Windows client is very straight-forward. I decided to show you a quick video guide on how to do this. Windows XP was used in the guide, but it’s also applicable to Windows Vista/7/8. Prior to exporting the configuration file, make sure you have set following from the Client Export utility page: Host Name Resolution = Interface IP Address

  • Verify Server CN = Automatic – Use verify-x509-name (OpenVPN 2.3+) where possible
  • Use Random Local Port = CHECKED
  • Certificate Export Options = Use Microsoft Certificate Storage instead of local files
  • Certificate Export Options = Use a password to protect the pkcs12 file contents or key in Viscosity bundle – CHECKED

Watch the mini-video guide:

That’s a Wrap

I hope you now know how to setup your OpenVPN server. It’s not that difficult really when you set it under pfSense, since it takes care all the tasks involve during your VPN setup. Creating your client certificate is done in no time, just point and click and you’re done. Thanks to pfSense! But if you still having issues with your setup, please feel free to ask about it and put your comments below. Till next time, and hope you enjoyed this guide.

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Getting a list of logical and physical drives from the command line

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It’s often useful to know what logical and physical drives are available to Windows, and sometimes this needs to be done from the command line.

Logical drives

Here’s a handy command to return a list of logical drives in Windows.

The Win32_LogicalDisk WMI class represents a data source that resolves to an actual local storage device on a computer system running Windows. While Caption, Description, DriveType, ProviderName, and VolumeName are useful in most cases, more properties are available, and a complete list is available at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa394173(v=vs.85).aspx. The output will be formatted as a table, the properties will be the column headings, and they will be placed into alphabetical order.

Caption is the drive letter of the logical disk. The Name property also returns the drive letter.

Description is the type of disk. For example: Local Fixed Disk, CD-ROM Disc, or Removable Disk.

DriveType is returned as an integer that corresponds to the type of disk drive the logical disk represents (and this matches the Description, making DriveType sort of superfluous).

0 = Unknown
1 = No Root Directory
2 = Removable Disk
3 = Local Disk
4 = Network Drive
5 = Compact Disc
6 = RAM Disk

ProviderName is the network path to the logical device.

VolumeName is the volume name of the logical disk.

Physical drives

And here is a command to return a list of physical drives.

The Win32_DiskDrive WMI class represents a physical disk drive as seen by a computer running Windows. Like the Win32_LogicalDisk WMI class, it has lots of properties, as listed at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa394132(v=vs.85).aspx.

For simplicity, though, and ease of reading in command window, wmic diskdrive list brief /format:list does the trick, particularly in combination with wmic logicaldisk.

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