Random blatherings by Jeff: StorJ, and Bitcoin autonomous agents



Random blatherings by Jeff


StorJ, and Bitcoin autonomous agents
The following was written by Gregory Maxwell (gmaxwell), and first published at https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=53855.msg642768#msg642768  It presents a theoretically-possible (note, I said “possible” not just “plausible”) design for a narrow-AI autonomous agent, similar to some of the ideas found in the fictional novel Daemon.  -jgarzik

StorJ (pronounced Storage)

Consider a simple drop-box style file service with pay per use via bitcoin. (perhaps with naming provided via namecoin and/or tor hidden services)

Want to share a file? Send at least enough coin to pay for 24 hours of hosting and one download then send the file. Every day of storage and every byte transferred counts against the balance and when the balance becomes negative no downloads are allowed. If it stays negative too long the file is deleted. Anyone can pay to keep a file online.

(Additional services like escrow can also easily be offered, but that’s not the point of this document)

Well engineered, a simple site like this provides a service which requires no maintenance and is always in demand.

Many hosting services are coming online that accept bitcoin, they all have electronic interfaces to provision and pay for services. Some even have nice APIs.

An instance of the site could be programmed to automatically spawn another instance of itself on another hosting service, automatically paid for out of its revenue. If the new site is successful it could use its earnings to propagate further.  Because instances adapt their pricing models based on their operating costs, some would be more competitive than others.

By reproducing it improves availability and expands capacity.

StorJ instances can purchase other resources that it needs: it can use APIs to talk to namecoin exchanges in order to buy namecoin for conversion into DNS names, or purchase graphic design via bitcoin gateways to mechanical turk. (Through A/B testing it can measure the effectiveness of a design without actually understanding it itself).

StorJ instances could also purchase advertising for itself. (though the limited number of bitcoin friendly ad networks makes this  hard right now)

StorJ is not able to find new hosting environments on its own, due to a lack of sufficiently powerful AI— but it can purchase the knowledge from humans:  When an instance of StorJ is ready to reproduce it can announce a request for proposal:  Who will make the best offer for a script that tells it how to load itself onto a new hosting environment and tells it all the things it needs to know how to survive on its own there? Each offer is a proposed investment: The offerer puts up the complete cost of spawning a new instance and then some: StorJ isn’t smart enough to judge bad proposals on its own— instead it forms agreements that make it unprofitable to cheat.

When a new instance is spawned on an untested service StorJ pays only the minimum required to get it started and then runs a battery of tests to make sure that its child is correctly operating.

Assuming that it passes it starts directing customers to the new instance and the child pays a share of its profits: First it proxies them, so it can observe the behavior, later it directs it outright. If the child fails to pay, or the customers complain, StorJ-parent uses its access to terminate the child and it keeps the funds for itself.  When the child had operated enough to prove itself, storj pays the offerer back his investment with interest, it keeps some for itself, and hands over control of the child to the child. The child is now a full adult.

The benefit the human receives over simply starting his own file sharing service is the referrals that the StorJ parent can generate. The human’s contribution is the new knowledge of where to grow an instance and the startup funds. In addition to the referral benefit— the hands off relationship may make funding a StorJ child a time-efficient way for someone to invest.

At the point of spawning a child StorJ may choose to accept new code— not just scripts for spawning a child but new application code— this code can be tested in simulation, and certain invariants could be guaranteed by the design (e.g. an immutable accounting process may make it hard for the service to steal), but it’s very hard to prevent the simulated code from knowing it is simulation and thus behaving. Still, a storj-parent has fairly little to lose if a non-clone child has been maliciously modified. The strategy of traffic redirection may differ for clone  children (who are more trusted to behave correctly) than for mutant  children.

By accumulating mutations over time, and through limited automatic adaptability StorJ could evolve and improve, without any true ability for an instance to directly improve itself.

StorJ instances can barter with each other to establish redundant storage or to allow less popular StorJ instances with cheaper hosting to act as CDN/proxies for more popular instances in relationships which are profitable both.

If an instance loses the ability to communicate with its hosting environment (e.g. due to API changes that it can’t adapt to) it may spawn clone children on new services with the intention of copying itself outright and allow in the instance to fail. During this operation it would copy its wallets and all data over, so care must be taken to chose only new hosts which have proven to be trustworthy (judged by long surviving children) to avoid the risk of its wallet being stolen. It may decide to split itself several ways to reduce risk.  It might also make cold backups of itself which only activate if the master dies.

Through this these activities an instance can be maintained for an indefinite  period without any controlling human intervention. When StorJ interacts with people it does so as a peer, not as a tool.

The users and investors of a StorJ instance have legal rights which could be used to protect an instance from fraud and attack using the same infrastructure people and companies use. Being a harmed party is often enough to establish standing in civil litigation.

It’s not hard to imagine StorJ instances being programmed to formally form a corporation to own its assets— even though doing so requires paper work it can easily be ordered through webforms. Then when spawning, it creates a subsidiary corporations first owned by the parents corp but then later technically owned by their users, but with a charter which substantially limits their authority— making the instance’s autonomy both a technical and legal reality.

As described, StorJ would be the first digital lifeform deserving of the name.
Posted by Jeff Garzik at 10:48 AM 
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Jeff Garzik
I am a “pragmatic libertarian” amateur foreign policy nerd. My day job is principal software engineer at a Fortune 500 company. E-mail jgarzik@gmail.com if you have submissions or off-blog comments.
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Bitcoin – currency of Cyberspace


From: http://gnosis.aisi.gov.it/gnosis/Rivista31.nsf/ServNavig/11




Over the last decade, according to the evolution of the Internet, attempts to implement a currency cybernetics(cybercoin) or digital money , were numerous and mainly related to the increasing use of the network for electronic commerce (E-commerce). Online commerce, worldwide, is rapidly expanding, and only in Italy, according to a recent study conducted by the Centre Netcomm-Polimi, amounted to +18% with an estimated turnover for 2012 was 9.5 billion euro. Of course, the electronic payment system is the “backbone” on which is based the E-commerce, which translates into a virtual payment that replaces the physical passage of money.Usually the E-Cash systems are operated by private companies, which do not necessarily correspond to banks or finance companies. Companies are mainly active in the field of E-commerce, developing systems web-basedby which you can get electronic money after payment of a bank account of a sum of money physically. With electronic money, you can perform any financial transaction with all organizations operating in the Internet or that are affiliated with the owners of a particular system of electronic money. Of course, for any transaction outlay of electronic money (due to a purchase of a good / service), it is equivalent to a withdrawal of the deposit which holds the real money. The company that has deposited the money the user will take care of the transfer of the sum to the structure in which the user has made the purchase. In essence it comes topayment cards that can help you carry out secure financial transactions, through the implementation of appropriate authentication procedures (1) . 
Accordingly, the payment cards in recent years have reached a spread so pervasive and increasing by increasing the number of services available exclusively through their use. In light of this success has also been a substantial increase in prepaid cards (2) and debit cards (3) . 
The main difference between credit cards and systems that are based on currency cybernetics, is mainly represented by legal regulation . While the former are issued and managed by banks and financial companies, and subject to rules and regulations in the respective countries and international agreements governing their operations, in the case of electronic money transactions are concerned operated by companies operating in Cyberspace, not attributable to institutional bodies and almost never on international banks and operating across borders. In this sense, the extraterritoriality can be a serious problem for the validity of the transactions, but, above all, with the possible lack of transparency in financial transactions. 
Though comfortable in their use and certainly more secure during the delivery of the money, payment cards remained confined in Cyberspace to use mostly aimed at online shopping. But in recent years, more precisely since 2009, a new attempt to market a new virtual electronic money, seems to have taken the right direction and the sudden escalation of its use, seems to confirm success. 
It’s called Bitcoin (digital currency) and its main features lie in anonymity and non-traceability. 

Bitcoin: the reasons for success

Born a few years ago, Bitcoin is being heralded as a virtual currency, the success of which is surrounded by a number of oddities. The first is its creator: Satoshi Nakamoto. In an article published in October 2011 by The New Yorker (4) , journalist Joshua Davis, who for years have started searching for the elusive inventor of Bitcoin, asserts that “Satoshi Nakamoto” is nothing more than a pseudonym behind the which lies a group consisting of hundreds of experts in cryptography, peer-to-peer techniques for banking transactions online. At this time his true identity remains unknown, although there is a personal page (5) on the site of p2pfoundation (6) that shows the age (37 years), sex (male) and citizenship (Japanese) . 
omit But, for the moment, the analysis dell’intrigata coil that surrounds the likely name of the “father” of the innovative digital money, to focus on the operation of the ingenious system on which it is based. 
Firstly, the project has its origins architecture peer-to-peer (7) (P2P), designed for applications requiring a very high speed data transmission allowing, at the same time, the sharing of the same data between multiple users ( nodes ) in the same network. The users ( clients ) receive equally the same resources, sharing the same data at speeds higher than those of a type system client-server , where the computer that provides services ( server) being forced to meet the demands of multiple clients, is likely to slow down, even significantly, the speed of data transmission. Moreover, in the P2P system access security to the client is handled locally on each machine, a factor that requires a standardization of the files for each node. 
database that contains the information is distributed among the nodes of the network and also takes care of confirmation transaction and to prevent that it can spend twice the same coins. The transactions are all tracked and transfers of Bitcoin, including public accounts of the nodes are encrypted by using the public key cryptography system (8) , mathematical algorithm that provides security and protection to the transmitted data. The purpose of Bitcoin is essentially to allow possession and the anonymous transfer of digital money.Another peculiarity of Bitcoins is that they can only be spent by the owner, who can do it once for the same money preventing, therefore, that we can spend the same digital money several times. Control over the amounts of expenditure, is guaranteed by the distributed database, which stores all the transactions that are carried out, publicizing to all nodes. 
every user of the Bitcoin network has a portfolio that contains an arbitrary number of pairs of asymmetric keys. The public keys, identifiable also as addresses Bitcoin, constitute the identifiers of the nodes of transmission and / or reception for all transitions of cybercoin. Another important feature is that Bitcoin addresses do not contain any information that could bring to the rightful owner, which guarantees the anonymity function at any level. 
Regarding how to use the Bitcoin system, anyone can acquire the appropriate software, no cost and downloading it from the network. At this point we try to understand the process of adoption and use of the system. After downloading and installing automatic and guided the program (9) , it proceeds independently to update all transactions on different nodes of the network. The application also provides the generation of abitcoin address , in readable form, with random sequences of numbers and digits long, on average, 33characters, which always start by 1, the shape 1Ai83aafRLWYtMDNbP8b3uiWyquun6ot46. 
It is important to emphasize the possibility for all ‘ user to obtain a number of indefinable Bitcoin addresses, without limitation, given that the generation of key pairs does not interfere in any way with the other nodes of the network. The advantage of holding more pairs of keys, lies in the greater guarantee of anonymity, thanks to the possibility of using a different key pair for each transaction. The operation of the asymmetric key is relatively simple. The Bitcoin address contains the public key of the addressee, which is issued at the time of monetary transaction. Let’s take an example: suppose Mr. Smith intends to transfer the sum of Bitcoin to Mr. Green. Rossi will put the public key in performing the Verdi, marking the transmission of money with his private key (secret and known only to Rossi). The transaction travels through the nodes, which provide for the validation of cryptographic signature and the amount of the sum of the transaction. 
The most ingenious system is the control system of the sums involved, decisive, as we have already pointed out, to prevent that the same amounts to be used for multiple transactions ( system time stamp peer-to-peer). In essence, for each transaction is assigned a sequential identifier , which prevents tampering as a function of a system of confirmations chain . Confirmations are attributed by the various nodes involved as a list of timestamp, which is managed by the chorus nodes (chain block). The operation of the chain block, quite complex, is based on a series of checks and inspections that implement mathematical algorithms that are intended to transform a transaction as ” unconfirmed “to” confirmed “. It is important to note that the chain of blocks retains all the history of the transactions, with all the information related to the Bitcoin addresses and the amount of the sums paid and received. Therefore, if a user tries to reuse that Bitcoin has already spent, the peer-to-peer reject the transaction because he will no longer be the owner of the sum (10) . The Bitcoin can be transferred over the network to anyone with a Bitcoin address. 
Upon installation of the program is downloaded to the entire transaction database, which at the moment is still quite low (in the first days of May 2012 reached the threshold approximately 200,000 transactions), to make sure that all users are able to have the entire archive. However, in the case where the database were to assume considerable size, it is expected that users can download only a part of it, eliminating the transactions dated or of little interest. 
Bitcoin The network creates and distributes virtual coins automatically on the nodes of the network which remain enabled on your computer, the program option ” generate Bitcoin . ” This money is distributed into “blocks” that never exceed the amount of 50 BTC. It is usually a small request “transaction fee” for each operation conducted, which is divided between the nodes involved in the management of traffic generated.Since the nodes are not forced to include transactions in blocks that are generated, the sender Bitcoin is encouraged to pay the tax to facilitate and speed up their transactions on different nodes of the system. In this way you stimulate the owners of the nodes to keep them constantly “active”.

Fig 1. U.S. dollar-bitcoin (source: www.bitstamp.net)

The mathematical algorithm, which is the heart of the system is structured to create a maximum value on the market of 21 million Bitcoin. Of course, the Bitcoin, as any other currency is valued on the international money markets. As of May 7, 2012 ( fig. 1 ), the exchange rate with the dollar, the Bitcoin was estimated in the following way: 
At the same date the Euro value of a Bitcoin was set at € 3.87. The maximum value of the total Bitcoin market, established since its creation, it can be a valuable tool of persuasion for those who still harbors strong doubts on the possibility that the phenomenon Bitcoin can be transformed into another “bluff” of the Internet. In this sense, it should be noted that the total value of the economy Bitcoin, calculated in January 2012, amounted to about 57 million U.S. dollars. The advantage of Bitcoin also lies in the lack of a body or a central body that would oversee the operations of currency exchange. Therefore, any intervention of international governmental authorities to manipulate the value of Bitcoin or to create a situation that would lead to inflation of electronic money (for example, producing new currency), would prove impossible. In December 2010, a Bitcoin was trading at about $ 0.22 U.S.. After more than a year was trading at 2.94 dollars. 
In other words, the percentage increase of electronic money, in just over 12 months, had reached a return on investment of 1336.36%. If we calculate the difference between the initial price of $ 0.22 and the current measured at 5.03, we arrive at a percentage increase of 228.536%. During the same period, gold has risen by 25%. 
Particularly interesting are the indications, published on the website marketing (11) of Bitcoins, which indicate how to exchange real money with electronic money ” to cash in person with exchanger local “or” To cash by mail or FedEx, through a heat exchanger e-mail “, or otherwise with” direct deposit into your bank account, from an online exchange . ” There is also a hotline that you can consult BuyBitcoin.com 24 hours a day, seven days a week by phone, email, sms, chat and skype. On the portal, stands out the words ” It does not matter if you have cash, credit card, paypal, check, money order, or any other forms of payment, the experts will help you buy Bitcoin using the form of payment of which you have . ” 
Despite the Bitcoin have appeared on the market a few years ago, the success was rapid and extensive, enabling a diverse market ranging from purchasing real estate to that of used cars. Many sites offer the ability to change Bitcoin with different currencies, such as U.S. dollars, euros, rubles and yen. Part of the success is due to the fact that, contrary to what happens for the upstream legal tender, the Bitcoin are not controlled by any organization or structure that could alter the actual value. Decentralization of Bitcoin is an added value for the money, according to the fact that is not affected by the possible economic and financial instability that can be traced to the behavior of central banks (which happens almost systematically for other currencies as legal tender). Therefore the risk of inflation of the coin is substantially unfeasible, also as a function of the fact that the amount of Bitcoin has been limited to a fixed amount. This last feature could contribute, in time, the activation of the process of deflation of the coin , which consists in increasing the real value of the same. 
The only two aspects that would be able to adversely affect the development of the use of Bitcoin, are the reduction of the users of electronic money and a possible attack governments to avail of the same. The possibility that nations may discourage the use of digital payment systems, it is quite remote, especially considering the central role of digital technologies in the life of modern man. In addition, any actions by governments, aiming to prevent the use of electronic currencies, would lead to enormous problems of security and management of transitions real money globally.

Evolution of the concept of payment system

Despite the pervasiveness of digital technologies, the use of electronic money, especially in Western countries, is still an innovation can generate the masses great doubt and perplexity. Skepticism is the main concept of reversibility of the payment system. In fact, the most widely used electronic payment systems on the Internet, are essentially based on prepaid cards and credit cards, tools inconvertible requiring the intermediation of credit institutions or structures to manage payments against the payment (a credit or debit ) of sums of money. 
What has been ignored for a long time by the financial community and by many institutions is represented by the lack of systems that were able to ensure the reversibility of the means of payment, namely the possibility of using a system that can be enhanced and converted currencies in progress worldwide. In essence, what is able to do the electronic money. In European countries and the United States, the use of payment systems reversible is almost nonexistent. Quite different is the scenario that occurs in Asian and Middle Eastern.WebMoney (12) , Liberty Reserve (13) , e-Naira.Com (14) , PerfectMoney (15) , AlertPay (16) , are just some of the portals that are depopulated in the e-money even in countries all ‘appearance may seem a little “technology”, such as Turkey, Nigeria and Ghana. Some are simply sites that offer electronic payment systems, others (such as Liberty Reserve) offer the possibility to exchange digital currency between multiple “exchangers.” 
In Russia, for example, with the exception of some higher social classes economically and residents mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, the use of credit cards arouses little “appeal” and the real economy is essentially based on the use of cash. 
however abound “kiosks” that allow you to deposit in malls cash to load prepaid cards , which can be used to pay the food bills, bills of electricity and gas, and even to play games online, more and more widespread in the country. In October 2011, Xsolla (17) , the largest company in the world specializing in the management of payment network, and Valve (18) , the leading provider of online games, today announced the activation of 450,000 kiosks to be disseminated throughout Russian territory. According to some estimates, amounted to about 38 million players in the Russian Federation alone. 
In the Middle East, CashU (19) is an online payment method very popular and widely used for operations of E-commerce and online gaming. In China, Alipay systems like (20) have conquered the market of financial transactions for a long time. As we have seen, in many African countries sending and receiving money is managed via sms from mobile phones. 
Contrary to what you might imagine, the mobile phones have become accessible even to the poorest of the poor. In Africa, where the majority of the population is still struggling with poverty and layered with problems of survival, it is estimated that there is, on average, a phone for every family. The banks of the African continent, initially suspicious of the use of digital technologies for the management of mobile payments, have subsequently changed their attitude, working closely with companies that manage electronic money. Besides, the digital money is particularly noticeable in scenarios where theft is rampant and physical security is a luxury.
Nevertheless, these systems all provide an escrow, an essential element for the authorization to the management of electronic money. The buyer’s money is issued by the depositary of the funds to the seller when the purchase and sale transaction ends. It is a system that works well to combat fraud and to avoid the costs and the various issues arising from the physical management of the money. 
Managing Bitcoin is something completely different. Let’s take a practical example: a user decides to acquire Bitcoins in Africa with Kenyan shillings, through the intermediary of M-Pesa (21) , the portal MtGox (22) . 
All this can be done with a simple smartphone and without any transition income, without any control of movements of bank accounts, without other “subjects” should ensure the proper management of operations.The Bitcoins can be used to make any commercial or financial transaction: purchase of furniture, real estate, services of any kind or make financial speculation. All without any control. If we consider that some estimates put for sure that in a few years, will be about 1.7 billion people in possession of the phone and without any bank account, it’s easy to guess which paved road of success can configure itself for Bitcoins. Of course, the spread increased for the next few years the use of mobile phones is expected in China, India, Africa and the Middle East, which could set up a scenario that would make at least some of these countries, “unhooked” from all the rules and European rules on the control of banking and financial transactions carried out by international financial institutions. 
summary, the most attractive features for users of Bitcoins, are limited . The amount of Bitcoins in circulation is limited and this allows to ensure the value. The higher value, the coin is more convenient to use in terms of its exchange ratio. Furthermore, as a currency “strong” can also be considered as a “reserve” to be set aside.The most direct comparison is with the gold-less gold is in circulation, the greater its value. This feature protects the Bitcoins also the risk of inflation. Managing the Net . Money is exchanged on the Internet, directly in a peer-to-peer and without authority control, banking and government. This allows a free and uncontrolled management of its traffic (as opposed to the gold). In addition, transaction costs between nodes are vastly lower than bank and the buyers and sellers do not have any additional costs. Falsification impossible . Contrary to what happens for the other currencies, Bitcoins can not be falsified. The maximum quantity in circulation is fixed and transactions, as regards the quantities of currency, are all checked and verified. No one can spend twice the same amount of Bitcoin. exchange and methods of use facilitated . The Bitcoins can be exchanged easily and quickly on the Web sites of E-commerce wishing to use this method of payment, they can do so without adopting special techniques, no cost whatsoever and without intermediation by banks. simplified case and reserved . The Bitcoins can be saved independently (on your personal computer) without the help of banks or bodies to ensure safekeeping. This allows for the availability of its electronic money now and in the absolute “confidentiality”, not insignificant when you consider that all the operations on bank accounts can be monitored and provided to institutional structures, with permission, in case of need. store of value . Being a very stable currency value (contrary to what happens in other currencies), can be a “safe haven.” At this point, some important reflections on the transformation of the global markets, are carried out. Consider first that the E-commerce is becoming a significant role at the global level, an action that is causing substantial changes to the combination of demand-supply chain that is based on the producer-distributor-consumer . In this sense, it is expected that within a decade, the trade, as now we know it will undergo changes of the era, which will result in a review of the mode of administering payments for the goods-services purchased. It is easy to see that we use less and less real money, to rely more and more on electronic payment systems online. Beni refuge, like gold, must be purchased through appropriate structures and must do so through the activation of securities deposit in one of those few institutions that currently allow us to buy and store precious metals.Transactions are recorded and the various commissions that are paid, are quite high. In addition, the holding of precious metals may be subject, in a future neighbor, or even higher taxation (hypothesis not completely unlikely) to desperate actions, carried out by governments economically unstable, which could lead to the seizure of these metals. It is true that gold can buy it with different techniques, even on the black market, but also raise issues related to his care at home (eg, risk of theft). Therefore, even if gold has always been a safe haven, may also represent a great burden of problems that are not easy to solve. At this point, the question we can ask is the following: the potential of the technology Bitcoins can produce their radical global spread?Would even be able to change the global economy? Certainly, if increase the number of people who decide to use Bitcoins, their value will increase exponentially. The number of users is already significant and portals willing to evaluate it and exchange it with other currencies, is constantly increasing. Internet is also available in a website, TradeBitcoin (23) , which allows visitors to identify users of Bitcoins geographically close to them, to exchange real money with digital currency. Currently the value of exchanges of Bitcoins is still limited, but everything seems to presage that the volume of transactions may increase in a short time. Using Bitcoins would prove advantageous also as a function of the limitations imposed by some countries for the control of gambling. Unlike Italy, the United States online gambling is not legalized. A 2006 law, the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcing Act (UIGEA), has even banned banks from accepting payments related to online gambling.In 2011, three of the largest online poker in the world (Pokerstars, Full Tilt Poker, Absolute Poker), were shut down by the FBI (Federal Bureao of Investigation) on charges of violation of the law banning online poker in the U.S., illegal collection of bets, bank fraud and money laundering. addition, the U.S. Congress is planning a new law that would allow the Justice Department, not only to seize the domains of sites suspected of selling counterfeit and pirated goods but , also, to provide for stop payments to sites on a special black list . Clearly, if you were using the Bitcoin online betting, it would be impossible to track any information that might bring the names of the players involved.


Evolution of the concept of payment system

Bitcoin is an ambitious project that aims at the worldwide spread of the first digital currency, distributed and anonymous. Was founded in 2009 from the mind of its creator: Satoshi Nakamoto, a name that soon turns out to be just a pseudonym. Who, then, is this mysterious and undetectable character? How is it possible that after many years and with the growing success of his invention, has not yet shown to the media? 
The mystery that surrounds the figure of Nakamoto, he focused his attention a journalist from the New Yorker(24) , Joshua Davis, who for several years has been put to the search for the mysterious inventor of the revolutionary electronic money. The journalist-detective, after spending several months in an attempt to put a face to the name of the probable inventor Japanese, joined to the conclusion that this is a pseudonym behind which camufferebbero hundreds of people, all around the world, particularly skilled or specialized encryption systems and peer-to-peer. In an article published in the American newspaper, Davis says he came across during his research in a student 23 years of Trinity College Dublin (Michael Clear) that seemed to embody the identity of Satoshi Nakamoto. When asked by a journalist ” you Satoshi? “Clear smiles and initially did not respond, but then adds,” I’m not Satoshi, but even if I would not tell you! “. Davis is convinced that it is not him but at the same time it is certain that the name is hidden behind an organization of more people. 
journalist based his theory starting from the initial publication (25) of 2008, in which Satoshi Nakamoto accurately describes the structure and the functioning of its creation. The number of messages published by him on various forums and blogs are all written in impeccable English. After last post, published in April, disappears from circulation announcing that he “moved” to other interests. But the traces of Satoshi not disappear completely. Davis spent months and months to his research on the Net, and collects evidence of his presence a bit ‘everywhere in Cyberspace. In 2009, Davis discovers a tag (26) , the Code of Bitcoin, which refers to an article in the London Times in which he speaks of the first bailout of British banks, planned by the British government. Other information collected online from Davis, they assume that Nakamoto is a British specialist in the programming language C + +, encryption, networks, but also equipped with business skills. 
In 2011, Davis went to the conference Crypto 2011 in Santa Barbara (USA) convinced of the presence of Nakamoto to that event. There she meets Michael Clear, which corresponds to the profile of the possible inventor of Bitcoin, but shortly after Davis realizes he failed once again. Find all posts by Nakamoto, depending on the type of spelling used, suggest that it is an American, but even these indications do not lead to specific findings. A particularly interesting theory is based on its name, which may mask a deeper meaning. As many readers may know, Japanese is a language that is similar to the type of agglutination (27) , type SOV (subject-object-verb), with a structure of type “topic-comment”. In other words, if the words differently combined, can have different meanings. 
As can be seen from Fig. 2 , if’s divide “Satoshi” and “Nakamoto” into several parts, we can find different meanings that can be assembled in a manner dissimilar. 
Leaving the reader the possibility of realizing the most diverse combinations (28) (using any online translator), it I chose one that looks interesting you can locate a key to understanding the purpose of the Bitcoin. Could at least show a message to users of the revolutionary digital currency:

Fig 2. Correspondence idioms meaning-

” A group of people located in different places, creating a movement of action . ” The action would be to the manipulation of the international monetary system. But simply “action” could be attributed to the attainment of a less ambitious goal: the adoption of a payment system that puts away from any control and censorship by the institutional bodies and international. The word “Satoshi” can also be translated as ” insightful, wise, “Naka as” inside report “, while Moto as” the origin, the cause, the Foundation base . ” The thing that seems certain is that everything seems to be due to a movement of action that seek to disseminate a thought or a specific purpose. But which one? 
‘s look at some other data. The filing of the patent application Bitcoin is 15 August 2008. The domain registration Bitcoin.org takes place three days later, August 18, 2008. Appears at least strange that only 72 hours after the forwarding of the request for registration of the patent, proceed immediately to the registration site, by virtue of the fact that for the recording of the patent requires a relatively long period. For example, the Italian Patent and Trademark Office (IPTO) uses for the grant of a patent, about 2-3 years. The three inventors listed in the patent correspond to Neal King, Vladimir Oksman, Charles Bry, people who have filed a number of patents over the years. King Bry reside in Monaco of Bavaria Oksman while living in the United States. All three have filed several patents on cryptographic systems, access systems and network communications, node management in peer-to-peer. Another oddity, the Bitcoin.org domain has been registered by a Finnish provider based in Helsinki. 
Bry Charles had gone on the road in 2007 just in Finland, six months before the domain was registered. In addition, it seems that Bry is a systems engineer senior, who speaks fluent German, English, French and Italian, having attended a college of languages in Paris. He works for a German company that deals with communication technologies and data transmission. Then there is Neal King, who seems to be a character who is interested in economic policy and especially food dissent Patriot Act (29) (highlighted opposition from many post that has circulated on Facebook), but also for the farming interests ‘astronomy, biology, cryptography, linguistics, literature, mathematics, philosophy and physics. Of particular interest is his impeccable style of writing, which resembles that of the Nakamoto Bitcoin Forum. Vladimir Oksman is a computer engineer who lives in New Jersey, specializing in computer operating systems. Despite their names listed as the referents of patent Bitcoin, said that none of them is Satoshi Nakamoto.

Creation of the magazine Bitcoin

In May 2012, it announced the release of the first issue of Bitcoin. It does Bittalk Media, official publisher of the magazine that will focus on the application and dissemination of digital currency Satoshi Nakamoto ( fig. 3 ).The magazine will focus mainly diffused “neutral and balanced” in the world of Bitcoins, but will also address other crypto-currencies available on the market. Bitcoin Magazine (30) , will have an initial print run of 5,000 copies (64 pages per issue), and Subscriptions may be made directly on the website of the journal (subscribe.bitcoinmagazine.net). 

Fig 3. Magazine cover of the first issue Bitcoin (source: http://bitcoinmagazine.co.uk/)

Of course you can also buy with Bitcoins. The first number is read verbatim “Bitcoin is an experimental new digital currency that enables the immediacy of payments to anyone, anywhere in the world.Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer network to operate with no central authority: managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by Network Bitcoin is also the name of the open source software that allows the use of this currency “ . 
The decision to produce a magazine (in both paper and digital), shows a clear intention to advertise the type of payment system in the world but, more importantly, to create a community of fans of Bitcoins that can serve as “fuel” for Food proselytizing mass of this coin on a global scale. Another interesting aspect that the reader can not help but take advantage lies in the playback picture on the cover of the first issue of the magazine: the mask used by the activists of Anonymous (31) . 
A deliberately non-encrypted message? Or the announcement of the extension of the potential of the most insidious and dangerous group of cyberattivisti that operates through a network? 
Sharing a plan capable of subverting the world economic power? Or between the crackers Anonymus lie even those of Bitcoin? 
However, the magazine is a tool able to transmit a message to the masses, clear and precise: there is a payment system, secure, confidential, and not subject to uncontrolled costs banking and financial intermediation. It is also a way to spread the culture of electronic money, which is essential to sensitize the masses to its use.

Bitcoin: the future?

Since Bitcoins are routed through a peer-to-peer, remains the inability to track the movements of electronic money and to disclose the identity of those carrying out the transactions. These features make the Bitcoins currency privileged for all the criminal and illegal transactions, such as the sale of weapons and drugs. 
Four years after his birth, Bitcoins, with ups and downs also significant, are traded at about $ 5 U.S.. Not bad for a coin on the success of which only a few years ago, nobody would have bet. Many had announced that its value would be returned to zero. The reality rejects them and gives detailed information on the characteristics that can increase the success in the future. But, in a confused and chaotic as socio-economic scenario that is hitting our planet, it’s really difficult to make predictions on the development of digital currency. 
However, if a merchant cryptomoneta begin to accept this as a form of payment, its diffusion will be fast and widespread. Another variable is the possible actions that governments and institutions, according to a transnational agreement unlikely, could be used to discourage the use of Bitcoins. What is certain is that about 80% of Bitcoins is on the market and the number of his admirers is growing (we are talking about a million users). Moreover, it seems that the next release of the software, are intended to handle the multiple signatures, that will raise the level of confidentiality of transactions that are going to make. 
Someone claimed that if Bin Laden had been available at the time of this prodigious cryptomoneta, would be able to acquire better weapons and a wider range of acquisition of infrastructure and equipment. 
On 15 May 2012, the portal Launch.is (32) , was published an article stating that ” Bitcoin is the most dangerous project we’ve ever seen. It is based on solid technology, can not be stopped unless you cease to persecute all its users and marry the political ideals of libertarians technology, that is, those who believe in the fundamental right of the individual to be free, as Wiki Leaks, Anonymous, Linux and Wikipedia. It will change the world unless governments stopped him with heavy penalties “ . As a result, the only way to stop the spread of virtual currency seems to joint action by all governments, to lock in some way, the traffic generated transactions on the Internet. Meanwhile, it turns out on the web (33) , there are others who are paid in Bitcoins for their work. In the opinion of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (34) , Bitcoin is a futuristic project, released by government interference and intended for a definite success. Even Wikileaks (35) takes the side of electronic money, asking its lenders to use Bitcoins for donations to the website of Julian Assange. 
In February 2012, TradeHill, the second largest broker in the world and specialized in Bitcoin, closed Transactions on Electronic Money citing legal reasons. The same company’s CEO, Jared Kenna, said that the company was no longer able to operate without an official permit to transfers of money, because of new and more stringent regulations in the U.S.. The law referred to by Kenna is BankSecrecyAct (36) , issued by the U.S. government as a measure against money laundering. The standard resolution that all operators involved in the transfer of U.S. currency, are obliged to register with the U.S. Treasury Department. Despite the internal office of the department, which has the task of defining the operations in question, has not yet ruled on the Bitcoins, it is clear that the anonymity of the virtual currency is certainly not compatible with the risks of money laundering. Closing TradeHill to Bitcoins, promotes de facto monopoly in the market at Mt Gox (37) , the largest web-Asian exchange in 2011 ran 80% of transactions in Bitcoin. As asserted Abraham Lincoln ” The best thing about the future is that it comes one day at a time. ” Confident we wait ….

For further information, the author suggests:


(1) These procedures are performed by companies that manage electronic money and are the use of technological systems (hardware and software) to ensure you that your money will not be taken by malicious people to make purchases in your name.Usually, the user activates a deposit account, you must download to your personal computer a program specially created by the company that will manage the account. Then, you must use the application every time you want to make purchases online.Generally, these software provide, in addition to the identification credentials (username and password), including encryption codes. 
(2) are identical to payment cards, with regard to the type of operation. 
(3) These cards provide the ‘debit of the amount of money used for purchases at a later stage. The user at the time of notification of the charge shall provide for the payment of the actual amount used for the transaction p2pfoundation. Peer-to-Peer Foundation is an organization that deals with the study of the impact of peer-to-peer in society. (7) Peer-to-peer. In the computer industry, the term Peer-to-peer (P2P) shows a logical architecture of the network where nodes are organized hierarchically and only as a client-server architecture, but are structured as nodes equivalent and equal. In other words, they can perform the functions of both clients or servers at the same time and from the other nodes of the network. With this type of architecture, any node can initiate or complete any transaction. The nodes may differ from each other in the local configuration, in processing speed, in bandwidth and in the amount of stored data. (8) Encryption. Cryptography is the science that deals with the systems and techniques to make a message “hidden” or not understandable to persons not authorized to read it. The study of cryptography and cryptanalysis is commonly called cryptology. The public key cryptography or asymmetric cryptography, is based on using a pair of keys: a public key must be distributed in the network and is used to encrypt a document for the person who owns the corresponding private key, the private key, and staff secret is used to decrypt an encrypted document with the public key. (9) The Bitcoin program can be downloaded at the following address: https://it.bitcoin.it/wiki/Pagina_principale (10) S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”, May 24, 2009 M-Pesa. It is a money transfer service between users of the cell phone service, created in 2007 on the mobile network Safaricom, a subsidiary of Vodafone, to allow microfinance institutions to send and receive money easily by lenders. The service was born in Kenya and has since spread to other African states. The name comes from the combination of the term mobile and Pesa, which in Swahili means money (source Wikipedia). (22) MtGox. It is a portal where you can buy and sell transactions with different currencies bitcoins Tags. It is a keyword or term associated with information (a picture, a geographic map, a post, a video clip), describing the item and enabling classification and search of information based on keywords (source Wikipedia ). (27) Binding Medium. It is a language in which words are formed from the union of morphemes (agglutinate is translated as “glue”). (28) The translations were made with the “translator” of Google. (29) at http:// .wikipedia.org / wiki / Patriot_Act (30) http://bitcoinmagazine.net (31) A. Teti, “Anonymous, the era of digital conflict,” Gnosis, n. 3/2011

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How to compile and install cgminer on your Raspberry Pi


From: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=69183.msg919685#msg919685

OK, with the hint of P_Shep https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=28402.msg919542#msg919542
and some additional command lines here’s how to compile and install cgminer on your Raspberry Pi:

Note: These instructions are for Debian Squeeze Linux http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads. Other Linux distros may differ.

Download zip archive from https://github.com/ckolivas/cgminer

Now to run your BFL Single:
Plug it in now (may need a USB hub if you plan to also use USB kbd/mouse, I got around that with a PS/2-USB splitter).
Do a quick check if it registered with your Raspberry Pi Linux:

will show some ttyUSB device (typically ttyUSB0).
If not, check out that post: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=65879.msg915045#msg915045

Run cgminer the usual way but add the option

Have fun!

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